Phenomenological approach to personality

Home 10 Humanistic Approach Strengths and Weaknesses 10 Humanistic Approach Strengths and Weaknesses Humanism, humanist, and humanistic are psychological terms which relate to an approach to study the whole person, as well as his or her uniqueness. These terms are referred in psychology to have the same approach. Humanistic approach, at some point, is named phenomenological in which the study of a personality is focused on the subjective experience of an individual.

Phenomenological approach to personality

A definition of personality, and there are many such definitions, must precede a treatment of personality theory. One Phenomenological approach to personality note at the start that personality is not an entity or a thing.

Phenomenology (philosophy) - Wikipedia

It is a mentalistic construct that serves as an abstract cognitive device for understanding 1 the characteristic ways human beings behave or are inclined to behave; 2 their perceptions of their defining characteristics; and in the view of many, 3 the common in some cases measured perception that others have of them.

This view of "personality" overlaps to a great extent with William James 's view of self []both psychological and social. Though personologists may at times refer to personality as if it had been reified, this stems less from their intention than from a limitation of the language used.

Given this condition, one can only strive to assure as close a correspondence as is possible of the definition of this word with the complex reality it is intended to reflect and capture. Definitions of personality vary depending on the standpoint—scientific, philosophical, humanistic, or strictly psychological—that one adopts.

Personality for our purposes is one or another heuristic enabling social scientists to understand and predict human behavior, both overt and tacit, and individuals' complex responses to the events that sweep over them daily.

To speak of individuals' personalities is to allude to all their longstanding, characterological properties that dispose them, given any set of circumstances, to respond in a predictable way. In popular parlance "to really know someone" is to understand that person's self-concept and the idiosyncratic manner in which he or she deals with problems of daily life, whether social, political, or purely intrapsychic.

In short, to know someone is to have a knowledge of their personality; but the personality of an individual is not a simple matter to assess. To realize this, one has only to consider that there is a shifting presentation of self as a function of the multifarious situations in which one can find oneself.

The same person with a single personality has a number of personae at his or her disposal for generally adaptive use. It is useful to quote in this context a classic statement by William James: Properly speaking, a man has as many social selves as there are individuals who recognize him and carry an image of him in their mind.

To wound any one of these images is to wound him. But as the individuals who carry the images fall naturally into classes, we may practically say that he has as many different social selves as there are distinct groups of persons about whose opinion he cares.

He generally shows a different side of himself to each of these different groups. Many a youth who is demure enough before his teachers and parents, swears and swaggers like a pirate among his "tough" young friends.

We do not show ourselves to our children as to our club-companions, to our customers as to the laborers we employ, to our own masters and employers as to our intimate friends. X, "The Consciousness of Self," pp.

Phenomenological approach to personality

Clearly it represents a theory of personality that is relativistic and relational. Relative to the former aspect, it invokes a double perspective.

Basic Concepts of the Theory

The first is the perspective of individuals as they present themselves very differently and even inconsistently in various contexts to different classes of people. The second is the perception of observers who make judgments about individuals' personalities or characters based on the limited sampling of behavior they have witnessed either directly or indirectly.

As such, it also presents the notion of self and of personality, though these two terms do not have identical meanings, as much more complex when viewed from within by the individual than when viewed from without by society. Relative to the relational aspect, personality appears to be shaped by the demand characteristics of the social group within which the individual performs.

In this Jamesian perspective, personality is the flip side of self, that is, observers' characterizations of others as distinguished from the views that those latter individuals have of themselves.


Indeed the everyday language that individuals use to describe themselves as well as others has provided the vocabulary e. Further, the equivalents of these terms, used to personologically distinguish individuals, can be found in most of the world's languages.

This notion has been labeled the "fundamental lexical hypothesis," and is addressed below. An individual's identity—understanding of his or her character and typical patterns of behavioral responses to social and other environmental stimuli—is the result not simply of their personal history, but of his or her construal of that history and of the either vivid or tacit memories that form the warp and weft of their self-understanding.Understanding Husserl’s phenomenology as engaged in a “war” (Husserl, , p.

) on psychologism helps clarify the actual relation between the various phenomenological psychology approaches to subjective experience and, at least, Husserl’s phenomenology, if not the “phenomenology movement” itself.

Humanistic approach, at some point, is named phenomenological in which the study of a personality is focused on the subjective experience of an individual.

Will a humanistic approach be a favorable way to deal with various aspects of human existence? Phenomenology within psychology (phenomenological psychology) is the psychological study of subjective experience. It is an approach to psychological subject matter that has its roots in the philosophical work of Edmund Husserl.

The phenomenological perspective on personality is a very optimistic approach, focussing on people and their potential in life. Theorists in this perspective see humankind as being self-perfecting, growing and evolving naturally towards “completeness and greater beauty”.

Phenomenological approach to personality

PHENOMENOLOGICAL PERSONALITY THEORIES AND THE DATA LANGUAGE OF PSYCHOLOGY RICHARD JESSOR personality theory have questioned the enthetically, that Lewin's theory, as an example of phenomenological theories, is considered by Spence (16) to achieve. Basic comparison, phenomenology focus on stories emphasize on experiences.

grounded theory on the other hand move beyond description, it is a study that generate theory or discover theory for a.

Phenomenology (psychology) - Wikipedia