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Historical development[ edit ] Medieval era to 18th century[ edit ] The master's degree dates back to the origin of European universities, with a Papal bull of decreeing that anyone admitted to the mastership in the University of Toulouse should be allowed to teach freely in any other university.
The original meaning of the master's degree was thus that someone who had been admitted to the rank degree of master i.
This gradually became formalised as the licentia docendi licence to teach. Originally, masters and doctors were not distinguished, but by the 15th century it had become customary in the English universities to refer to the teachers in the lower faculties arts and grammar as masters and those in the higher faculties as doctors.
At the start of the century, the only master's degree was the MA, and this was normally awarded without any further study or examination. The Master in Surgery degree was introduced by the University of Glasgow in In Lord Broughamthe Lord Chancellor and an alumnus of the University of Edinburgh, told the House of Lords that "In England the Universities conferred degrees after a considerable period of residence, after much labour performed, and if they were not in all respects so rigorous as the statutes of the Universities required, nevertheless it could not be said, that Masters of Arts were created at Oxford and Cambridge as they were in Scotland, without any residence, or without some kind of examination.
In Scotland all the statutes of the Universities which enforced conditions on the grant of degrees were a dead letter. In the US, the revival of master's degrees as an examined qualification began in at the University of North Carolinafollowed by the University of Michigan in although the idea of a master's degree as an earned second degree was not well established until the s, alongside the PhD as the terminal degree.
At the University of Michigan this was introduced in two forms in The "in course" MS was last awarded in When London introduced its Faculty of Sciences inthe University was granted a new charter giving it the power "to confer the several Degrees of Bachelor, M phil dissertation in commerce, and Doctor, in Arts, Laws, Science, Medicine, Music",  but the degrees it awarded in science were the Bachelor of Science and the Doctor of Science.
InOxford introduced the Master of Natural Science, along with the Bachelor of Natural Science, to stand alongside the MA and BA degrees and be awarded to students who took their degrees in the honours school of natural sciences.
Inthe London Daily News criticised the practice of Oxford and Cambridge, calling their MAs "the most stupendous of academic frauds" and "bogus degrees". This was the first master's degree in business, the forerunner of the modern MBA. In the s, new Scottish universities with the exception of Dundee, which inherited the undergraduate MA from St Andrews reintroduced the BA as their undergraduate degree in Arts, restoring the MA to its position as a postgraduate qualification.
Oxford and Cambridge retained their MAs, but renamed many of their postgraduate bachelor's degrees in the higher faculties as master's degrees, e. This development was noted by the Dearing Report into UK Higher Education inwhich called for the establishment of a national framework of qualifications and identified five different routes to master's degrees: Twenty-first century[ edit ] In renewed pressure was put on Oxbridge MAs in the UK Parliament, with Labour MP Jackie Lawrence introducing an early day motion calling for them to be scrapped and telling the Times Higher Education it was a "discriminatory practice" and that it "devalues and undermines the efforts of students at other universities".
This specified learning outcomes for M-level master's degrees and advised that the title "Master" should only be used for qualifications that met those learning outcomes in full.
It addressed many of the Dearing Report's concerns, specifying that shorter courses at H-level honourse. It was specified that the title "Master" should only be used for qualifications that met the learning outcomes and credit definitions, although it was noted that "A small number of universities in Scotland have a long tradition of labelling certain first degrees as 'MA'.
Reports of Agency reviews of such provision will relate to undergraduate benchmarks and will make it clear that the title reflects Scottish custom and practice, and that any positive judgement on standards should not be taken as implying that the outcomes of the programme were at postgraduate level.
This established a three-cycle bachelor's—master's—doctorate classification of degrees, leading to the adoption of master's degrees across the continent, often replacing older long-cycle qualifications such as the Magister artsDiplom sciences and state registration professional awards in Germany.
This led to questions as to the status of the integrated master's degrees and one-year master's degrees in the UK. List of master's degrees Master's degrees are commonly titled using the form 'Master of The form "Master in This form is also sometimes used with other integrated master's degrees,  and occasionally for postgraduate master's degrees e.
In the UK, fullstops periods are not used in degree abbreviations. In Australia, some extended master's degrees use the title "doctor": Despite their titles these are still master's degree and may not be referred to as doctoral degrees, nor may graduates use the title "doctor".
Courses normally last one year in the UK and two years in the US. The Scottish MA is a bachelor's-level qualification offered by the ancient universities of Scotland.
The Oxbridge MA is not an academic qualification; it is granted without further examination to those who have gained a BA from Oxford or Cambridge Universities in England,  and the MA of Trinity College Dublin in Ireland is granted to its graduates in a similar manner.
Examples are the MPhil always a research degree, often linked to a doctoral programmeMLitt usually, but not always a research degree and Master's by Research.
They aim to prepare students for research careers. These may be stand-alone master's courses, leading to, e.
Professional or practice master's degrees see also professional degree are designed to prepare students for a particular professional career and are primarily taught, although they may include work placements and independent study projects.
Some may require professional experience for entry. The name of the degree normally includes the subject name.
The United States Department of Education classifies master's degree as research or professional. Research master's degrees in the US, e. Professional master's degrees may be structured like research master's e. Research master's degrees typically take one to two years, and two thirds of their content consists of research, research training and independent study.
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