Age of Enlightenment — The Enlightenment was an intellectual movement which dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, The Century of Philosophy. French historians traditionally place the Enlightenment betweenthe year that Louis XIV died, andthe beginning of the French Revolution, some recent historians begin the period in the s, with the start of the scientific revolution. Les philosophes of the widely circulated their ideas through meetings at scientific academies, Masonic lodges, literary salons, coffee houses.
Both these early uses refer to the Continental debate. But even there the term cannot be traced back very far. It seems to occur first in Italy, induring the discussion waged in Milan.
See Discussioni e polemiche sul romanticismo, ed.
Bellorini, Bari , I, ff. Stendhal picked up the term in Milan: But neither in Goethes sentimentalism essay nor in England was the term widely used in the nineteenth century.
In England rival forms which have since dropped out of use, occur occasionally. In the word appeared for the first time on the title page of an American book.
A Study of Pseudo-classicism in Literature. Similarly, in France, the term classicisme was rarely used in the nineteenth century. Sainte-Beuve and Taine do not use the term.
It spread more widely about III picks it up.
Louis Bertrand later belonged to the group of conservative critics who early in the twentieth century launched the anti- romantic campaign which accused romanticism of all the evils brought about by the French Revolution and the anarchy of our time. Hulme drew heavily on the doctrines of the new French clas- sicism: Eliot proclaimed his classicism in the Preface to For Lancelot Andrewes Behler, Munich , I, He felt it to be an innovation as he explained in the preface to a later book, Der deutsche Klassizismus im Zeitalter Goethes The new term replaced the older early in the twentieth century: The tri- umph of the new term was soon complete.
The reasons for its success are obvious. Classicism, in a sense resembling that of French classicism, is not a very appropriate term for most of the writings of Goethe and Schiller if one excepts the stages in their careers when they consciously aimed at the imitation of the ancients.
It has become a term which pries the German classics loose from international classicism and yet resists the Western tendency to treat Goethe and Schiller as romantics. They are in some degrees our Classics.
Livet, Paris , II, Characteristically, the age of Pericles is missing from the list. The matter of style did not enter. The historistic revolution brought about an awareness of the existence, side by side, of at least two literary traditions. In her Preface Madame Necker commented perceptively: What had been a local German debate became a European one.
The history of the term reflects the history of its meaning: The exact value put on classicism will necessarily vary with the context and the polemi- cal attitude of the writer.
In other situations it assumes again the old meaning of superior value, perfection, and excellence as in the French classicist critics of this century or in their English counterparts, T.
The situation differs greatly in the main countries of Europe. But there is in Italy no particular feeling that Italy had its classical age, though Dante is the great classic in the sense of excel- lence.
A series such as Classici Italiani includes simply writers of all epochs and styles of any eminence. In France, the seventeenth century is considered the classical age:Romanticism Essay literature can be categorized into various periods; each period has its eminent way of representing literature.
From to , the transcendentalist movement spurred the writers to start a new age of literature, the Romanticism. Romanticism Essay Romanticism Romanticism was created by artists who had introduced this art movement in and , which originated from Western Europe indicating the feelings towards the aristocratic, social and political to remove the strict rules of classicism.
Free Essays - Yorick's Attitude Towards Women in A Sentimental Journey - If we are to read Laurence Sterne's A Sentimental Journey, we must abandon the fixed idea about ordinary travel, which are filled with detailed descriptions of the landscapes.
Sentimentalism is a practice of being sentimental, and thus tending toward basing actions and reactions upon emotions and feelings, in preference  to reason.
As a literary mode, sentimentalism has been a recurring aspect of world literature. Powerful Essays words | ( pages) | Preview The Romantic Hero in Goethe's Faust - The Romantic Hero in Goethe's Faust Works Cited Not Included Long hailed as the watershed of Romantic literature, Goethe’s Faust uses the misadventures of its hero to parallel the challenges that pervaded European society in the dynamic years of the .
manticism and Classicism,” in his “Essay on Schiller” (Critical and Goethes (): “I could not this time avoid the un- pleasant expressions 'Classicism' and 'classicist,' for sentimentalism; Lessing, in spite of his polemics.